LNG Liquefied Process & Control

I would like to share very good article about “How LNG is LIQUEFIED Intro, adsorption cooling then controls” Written by John Lozinski

Gas is delivered to the processing plant by trucks train or sometimes pipeline. The gas must be cleaned removing all impurities and water that would interfere with the freezing process of methane. Water is removed by adsorption so ice will not form in the liquefaction process. Adsorption is the process in which gas liquid or dissolved solids adhere to a surface of the adsorbent.

The next step is liquefaction. There are three types of liquefaction cycles: Mixed Refrigerants, Turbo expansion and Cascade.

LNG liquefaction is basically the same as a modern refrigerator except the temperature required is negative 161 degrees Celsius or minus 258 Fahrenheit. The temperature is reduced by the Joule-Thomson effect to -161C the temperature at which methane liquefies. The process is similar to refrigeration to drop the temperature down to minus 258 degrees F or negative 161 degrees C.

Often an adsorbent is used to remove mercury. Mercury, when present in gas processing facilities, can be a primary cause of corrosion, equipment failure and downstream catalyst deactivation. Mercury has low vapor pressure and low solubility and is liquid at room temperature.

Each gas field has varied levels of mercury parts per billion. The brazed aluminum heat exchangers commonly found in Liquefied Natural Gas plants and petrochemical plants are particularly susceptible to liquid-metal embrittlement caused by mercury. Varied processes are used to remove most of the mercury including carbon and additives because it causes failures of brazed aluminum heat exchangers.

When mercury is present at very low concentrations in relatively large gas streams powdered adsorbents or pellet adsorbents can be used to remove it. The powdered or pellet adsorbents can be injected into the gas stream and, after an appropriate residence time filtered out in a dust collector.

Most systems are designed to remove trace amounts of Mercury from the gas stream. Mercury needs to be removed as over decades it has been the cause of failure of heat exchangers.

Amine absorbers are used to remove acid gas and impurities. Process removes excess heavy gas components like propane, butane and pentanes with amine absorber or acid gas removal. These can be sold. At this point the cooling begins.

Cooling requires an enormous amount of energy. To this end a number of solutions exist. The Methods used are called C3-MR, AP-X, Cascade, DMR and SMR. You can Google how these methods work exactly. Let me say all these methods require large refrigeration Compressors. Many solutions including gas turbines heat exchangers and large diesels are used to drive them. Designs and solutions vary and with modernization come improved solutions.

One method of liquefaction is using heat exchangers between cooling gasses and refrigerants similar to a refrigerator. Most of us have heard of automotive intercoolers for turbo chargers. You might even know there are air to air and liquid to air intercoolers for car turbos.

What LNG does is cooling liquids to methane gas that they want to liquefy. The refrigerant is liquefied by compressing gaseous refrigerant materials like nitrogen, methane, ethane and propane used as coolants. Processes use heat exchanger cool boxes condensing and LNG sub-coolers using nitrogen coolant.

The cascade method uses propane, ethylene and methane as coolants. This is done in a progression and the cycle continues so as to achieve the highest possible efficiency. DMR uses mixed coolant in Shells process while SMR uses only one type of coolant.

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Process Simulation HYSYS® Tutorial

 Aspen HYSYS® the best process simulation software for the oil and gas industry is continuously upgraded to add new functionalities for improved process design and safe, optimized plant operations all in a unified engineering environment.

I have collected some tutorial video for our Learning purpose. You can check out below :

1-Gas Processing – Amine Sweetening Process with Aspen hysys 7.3

2-Gas Processing – Glycol Dehydration Process with Aspen hysys 7.3

3-Gas Processing – Dew Point Control by: (1/2) Heavy Hydrocarbons Removal Process – Aspen hysys 7.3

4-Gas Processing – Dew Point Control by: (2/2) Joule Thomson Plant with Aspen hysys 7.3

5-Gas Processing – Nitrogen Removal with Cryogenic Distillation – Aspen hysys 7.3

6-Gas Processing – LNG Fractionation Unit with Aspen hysys 7.3

7-Gas Processing – SynGas Production Plant with Aspen hysys 7.3

8-LNG Production – (1/2) LNG Cascade cycle – hysys 7.3

9- LNG Production – (2/2) DMR cycle – hysys 7.3

10 -Refining Processes – Hydrodesulfurization Unit – Aspen hysys 7.3

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Qatar Petroleum Dukhan Operations

Onshore Dukhan is a large oil and gas field extending over an area of approximately 80 kms by 8 kms and is located about 80 kms to the West of Doha. It produces crude oil, associated gas, condensate and non-associated gas.

Dukhan Field is comprised of three sectors from North to South – Khatiyah, Fahahil and Jaleha/ Diyab.Oil and gas are separated in four main degassing stations – Khatiyah North, Khatiyah Main, Fahahil Main and Jaleha. Satellite stations are Fahahil North and Fahahil South and Khatiyah South. The Diyab satellite station at the south end of the field has no process facilities and the total oil production is sent to Jaleha station for processing. Stabilized crude oil is transported through pipeline to Mesaieed port about 100 kms east of Dukhan.

Dukhan oil field has production facilities to produce up to 335,000 barrels per day (b/d). However actual annual production is based on reservoir management requirements.Dukhan Field has a total of 300 oil-producing wells, 182 water injection wells and 58 gas-producing and injector wells. According to the latest well status the total number of wells in Dukhan is 605, including all production, injection, observation, closed-in and abandoned wells.

The first shipment of oil was transported from Dukhan on December 31, 1949 through Mesaieed port terminal. Dukhan crude is of high quality, with an API specific gravity of 40 degrees and sulfur content of 1.5%.

Data Source : Qatar Petroleum Website

Qatar Petroleum’s latest corporate video traces the corporation’s history and the State of Qatar’s rapid development over the years. Using a combination of animations, aerial shots, old footage, graphics and other special effects, the video tells an engaging story of how the sustainable.

Video Source : Qatar Petroleum YouTube

Community Social Life Photos & Video in Dukhan

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Honeywell Safety Manager

Image result for honeywell safety managerHoneywell’s Safety Manager, part of the Experion® Process Knowledge System (PKS), enhances the safety, reliability and efficiency of critical processes. Experion® PKS – The Knowledge to Make it Possible.

Safety Manager combines Honeywell’s proven Quadruple Modular Redundancy (QMR®) 2oo4D technology with extensive process safety management expertise in integrating process safety data, applications, system diagnostics and critical control strategies.

Honeywell’s IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 SIL 3 TÜV certified solution provides the optimal level of safety and process integration while still maintaining functional safety preparation as mandated by those standards.

Through Experion operational integration, all systems are unified into one operationally integrated architecture, providing a unique opportunity to improve safety, process availability and efficiency.

Experion provides unprecedented connectivity through all levels of process and business operations to optimize work processes, improve routine maintenance efficiencies, enhance safety management and release personnel from manual processes.

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UniSim OTS Platform Migration and Maintenance Benefits

 The oil and gas production, gas processing, petroleum refining and chemicals industries make widespread use of Operator Training Simulators (OTS) for training and competency management of process operations staff.

The training simulator provides the tools and techniques for trainees to experience and practice routine normal, nonroutine normal (start-up and shutdown) and non-routine abnormal (emergency operations) activities in a safe environment.

 The training simulator plays a critical role in operational effectiveness and competency management. To ensure credible and realistic trainee experiences and outcomes, the OTS must be relevant, reliable and realistic, aligned with industry training trends while reflecting, as much as practical, the current real world dynamic operating environment. The face of the training simulator system is the set of instructor features, training tools, man-machine interface and integration capabilities with learning management, competency management systems and other training tools.

 

The heart of the training simulator system is the replication of real world systems by the process, control, and logic modeling engines. Both aspects are important in the development of high performing process operators. As the process and automation systems evolve, an OTS without regular updates and maintenance will deviate from the real world experience, leading to compromised training outcomes and related risks. A well maintained OTS system, deploying the latest tools and capabilities can create well trained, high performance operators via more effective training interventions and improved trainee outcomes. Well trained operators improve process operations, performance, reliability and safety.

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Modelling OTS Design for Acid Gas Removal Plant

That was great opportunity for me to involve upgrade the existing ARAB-D OTS and modelling new AGRP OTS for my department.  The new OTS system Acid Gas Removal Plant (AGRP) used Honeywell simulation software Unisim Design (USD) & Unisim Suite Operation (USO) R430.

Honeywell’s UniSim® Operations is part of the comprehensive UniSim Competency Suite, which helps better train today’s industrial workforce. This solution can be used to replicate and assess the operational readiness of plant assets long before they are applied in real-world production scenarios. More detail about UniSim Operations, you can read below :

UniSim® Design Suite is Process modelling software for process design, simulation, safety studies, operations monitoring and debottlenecking, process optimization and business planning. More detail product information you can read below :

The purpose of this Model Acceptance Test (MAT) is to ensure that the process model is tested thoroughly. There will be no DCS/ESD and any third party PLC connected to the system.

The activities that will be performed during the MAT are listed below:
· Verify Model Scope: Determine whether the process model has been built to match the scope defined on the marked up P&IDs and FDS 
·
Verify Steady State Conditions:  Determine whether the process model is capable of achieving the steady state at the supplied design values 
·  
Execute Plant Start-up Procedures: Determine whether the process model is capable of executing the normal startup procedures as outlined in the Operating Guidelines supplied by the Qatar Petroleum
·  Verify Initial Conditions: Determine whether the model is presented in the correct initial state upon initiation of a training session from the initial condition snapshot training.
· Verify Instructor Graphics: Determine whether the process model is represented correctly through the Instructor Graphics built using HMI Web Display
·  Verify Process Upsets:  Determine whether the process model is capable of responding appropriately to the custom process upsets configured
·  Verify Instructor Variables:  Determine that the functionality of the Instructor Variables is adequately represented and generates the correct process response when activated.

Modelling Acceptance Test (MAT) has been conducted at Honeywell Doha Head Office and completed on 2 weeks as per schedule.

Below sample tutorial introduces the fundamental concepts required to build a dynamic simulation case for a distillation column using UniSim Design Suite.

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The First SPE Qatar Section Award Night 2015

IMG_20151115_174247the first SPE Qatar Section Award Night on Sunday, November 15th, 2015 at the Sheraton Hotel, Doha.

2015 was certainly a very successful year for the Qatar Section as the section received SPE Gold Standard Award for 2015, in recognition of its exceptional programs in industry engagement, operations and planning, community involvement, professional development and innovation. In September 2015 Qatar Section Chairperson Sheikh Faisal Bin Fahad Al-Thani became a recipient of the SPE Middle East Regional Service Award as an acknowledgment of his exceptional contributions to the SPE at section and regional levels and recognition of his singular devotion of time and effort to the programs and development of technical expertise.

We are honored to have Sheikh Faisal to present Qatar Section Awards to section’s outstanding professional members and students in recognition of their enthusiasm and great efforts in developing and conducting section’s programs and promoting SPE values and mission.

We are very pleased to have the following speakers:

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  • Mr. Nayef Mohammed Al-Hajri, Asst. Manager Offshore Operation Oversight/Excellence, Qatar Petroleum, present “Development of Knowledge / Best Practices Sharing Platform”.
  • Mr. Mike Gunningham, Program Chair of SPE Qatar Section, Head of Subsurface Support Team, Maersk Oil Qatar, present “A Celebration of Success – SPE Qatar Section 2015”.

The details for the event as follows:

WELCOME REFRESHMENTS: 17:00 – 17:30 hrs

INTRODUCTION : 17:30 – 17:40 hrs

PRESENTATIONS: 17:40 – 18:20 hrs

AWARD CEREMONY : 18:20 – 18:40 hrs

CLOSING REMARKS : 18:40 – 18:45 hrs

BUFFET DINNER: 18:45 – 20:30 hrs

I was so proud one of my son’s friend, “Ali Al-Obaidly” was received the Award. Well done and Congratulation ألف مبروك  Ali …..
IMG_20151115_180432IMG_20151115_184458

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