Wellheads, Well Casing, Well Completions and Artificial Lifting Lecture Series No.9-12 by Dr. Tariq Masood PhD

Wellheads, Well Casing, Well Completions and Artificial Lifting

Lecture No.9

Lecture No.10

Lecture No.11

Lecture No.12

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Oil & Gas Production Lecture Series

Oil & Gas Production Lecture Series by Dr.Tariq Masood PhD

Lecture No.1

Lecture No.2

Lecture No.3

Lecture No.4

Lecture No.5

Lecture No.6

Lecture No.7

Lecture No.8

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Learning German Language – Deutsch lernen

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Do you already have some good reasons to learn German? Want to communicate with relatives, or to travel to Germany during your summer break, or to prepare yourself for study in a German-speaking country?!

Just in case you still have any doubts and need a final push toward taking the plunge, here are some more reasons why learning German may be a good choice for you. German is the most widely spoken language in Europe.

Image may contain: 1 person, standing, sky and outdoorGerman is the 3rd most popular foreign language taught worldwide and the second most popular in Europe and Japan.

Germany has the 3rd strongest economy and is the #1 export nation in the world. Which means, knowing German creates business opportunities.

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1 in 10 books in the world is published in German. In number of books published, Munich is second in the world only to New York.
German-speaking countries have a rich cultural heritage. Germany is often referred to as the land of poets and thinkers. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Thomas Mann, Franz Kafka, just to name a few.

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German language is not as hard as you think. If you already know English, then you already have an advantage when it comes to learning German. The two languages share many similarities in both vocabulary and grammar.

I have compiled learning videos more than 70 videos from https://www.germanwithjenny.com/






























Listening Comprehension for Beginners #1 – der Winter – A1/A2






























Listening Comprehension for Beginners #3 – der Geburtstag – A1/A2














Start Deutsch 1 Oral Exam – Part 1 – Goethe Institute – Prep – A1

Start Deutsch 1 Oral Exam – Part 2 – Goethe Institute – Prep – A1

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Visit Budapest as Europe’s Best Destination 2019

Capital of Hungary Budapest has been just been named the the best Destination of Europe.

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Budapest voted as Europe´s Best Destination 2019

European Best Destinations – the aim of the award is to promote European tourism and culture worldwide – has been guided to world travelers for 10 years, working closely with the continent’s largest destination and tourist offices, and with the EDEN network (European Distance and E-Learning Network) set up by the European Commission to help tens of millions of tourists to choose the best destination.

No surprise it is very easy to turn this recognition into benefits, just think about the half a million voters from 153 different countries who followed the vote this year, where to book their next flight tickets.

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The best destination gets a year-round promotion of the European Best Destinations website, and in the most prestigious international travel, economic and lifestyle media outlets, numerous social media platforms and travel portals.

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Budapest first took part in the voting in 2018, and it won the 8th place, forewent many famous European cities. The Hungarian capital with 62 128 votes won European Best Destinations (EBD) in February 2019, overtook cities like London, Paris, Florence and many more breathtaking destinations. 77% of the Budapest-voters came from other countries, mainly from the UK, USA, Germany, France, Austria, and Italy. Thus, we can say that the city has earned an overwhelming victory.

Budapest, 13-24 April 2019

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Training Simulators for Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities

Nearly 50% of oilfield production workers in the Gulf of Mexico will retire in the next 10 years.  As energy companies struggle to replace an aging operator workforce, Operator Training Simulators (OTS) have become a key component of these efforts. The primary goal of companies which are replacing these workers is to retain the knowledge of experienced operations personnel, and to pass it on through the use of virtual simulation and other integrated training processes in order to develop a well-trained and competent workforce.

The lack of experienced personnel, potential for environmental consequences, regulatory requirements and litigation risks imposed by improper facilities operation have made operator training simulations a best practice for the startup and operation of any new oil and gas facility.

Training simulators used for oil and gas facilities operations training may be physical or virtual in nature. Physical simulators require multiple servers, each programmed for a specific application within the training simulations integration. Virtual training simulators are composed of only a few actual physical servers while the balance of components are simply emulations of servers and server processes.

A primary advantage of virtual servers is that upon failure of the emulated server, the program can be reloaded to the system while the failure of a physical server requires replacement of the server component.

Training simulators may be integrated systems that include the modeling of most facility operating processes-such as topsides, subsea and marine operations. Integrated OTS machines provide the most realistic simulations currently used for facility operations training. With an integrated OTS all facility simulation training processes are available on a single machine.

Operator training simulators are loosely described in two main groups, either low or high fidelity. 

Low fidelity simulators are simulators that do not mimic the actual design and function of an integrated production control system. The simulations also may not model the state of the physical processes that will be performed. Low fidelity simulators:

  • Cannot be used for automation testing, procedure validations or design verification processes.
  • May not include an emulation of the actual control systems used by the oil and gas facility personnel being trained.

Low fidelity simulators are used primarily by oil and gas operations for situational awareness training and to provide trainees with a basic understanding of the process work flows of generic oil and gas operations. Low fidelity training simulators should not be used as the basis for the competency assessment of control room operator trainees-particularly if the control system has not been accurately mimicked.

On the other hand, high fidelity simulators attempt at varying degrees of complexity-to model all of the interactions contained within a complex integrated control system. Modeling processes may include the actual functions of the process equipment and their interfaces, as well as emulations of the physical flow modeling and flow assurance complexities.

Dedicated physical or virtual servers are provided for each aspect of the control dynamics inclusive of:

  • Operating system software such as Siemens, Yokogawa and Honeywell distributed control systems (DCS) (or Wonderware PLC based systems)
  • Control software and equipment emulations for pump, compressor and generator controllers, valves and process controllers
  • Safety and shutdown systems emulations (i.e.: MCS, PSS, SSI, SPS and other systems)
  • Topsides flow modeling
  • Subsea flow modeling -if applicable
  • Marine processes modeling-for active ballast control systems
  • Network interfaces and communications such as OPC, optical, TCP/IP and hardwire emulations

High fidelity simulators are best built after the cause and effect and operating procedures for an oil and gas facility have been developed but well enough in advance of the startup of the facility to allow for an effective operator training program to be completed. The advantages of building a high fidelity operator training simulator include:

  • The possibility of design criteria and cause and effect verifications
  • Validation of operating, startup and intervention procedures (topsides and subsea)
  • Training of engineering staff, and training and competency assessment of operations personnel
  • Automation controls troubleshooting process, control revisions testing and debottlenecking
  • Reduced downtime during startup and turnaround operations because of more detailed shutdown and startup processes.

The disadvantages include greater development costs, additional upfront planning and testing requirements and the costs associated with maintaining and updating the OTS for ongoing brownfield modifications.

Once a company decides and contracts to build a training simulator, the OTS builder will work with the customer to define the project scope. The builder will likely request project documentation packets to include:

  • Design specs and lists of equipment, choke curves and etc.
  • P&ID’s and/or PFD’s for the project
  • Cause and effects documentation, equipment control narratives and integrated control systems specifications and narratives
  • Flow assurance and flow guidance documents
  • Any available flowback performance documentation
  • Operating procedures (once developed)

The physical and virtual servers are built, packaged and programmed per the facility specs. The topsides and subsea models are developed to mimic the physical characteristics of the process flow and the flow assurance guidance. The Model Acceptance Test (MAT) is performed for acceptance of the topsides, subsea and/or marine models.

Once the MAT test(s) is accepted by the customer, final integration and calibration of the high fidelity simulator package and model is performed.

A Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) of the integrated simulator is then scheduled and performed with the customer. This FAT is actually the first time a new build operator training simulator is operated as an integrated package.

Operations personnel or customer contractors should perform additional testing and fine tuning after FAT acceptance-in association with the builders programming specialists-to ensure that the training simulator performs according to modeled expectations and realistically represents the operations being simulated.  The simulator may also be linked to the customer’s PI System-(data historian) to further tune and initialize the integrated operations model(s). After the OTS performance is deemed satisfactory, the customer will then decide how best to use the training simulator.

An Exercise Training Manager software package allows for competency testing process records that are not affected by the independent competency review provided by the OTS trainer.

Once the simulator has been properly configured and calibrated and sufficient design criteria, cause and effects documents and flowback data have been provided by the customer, the following data can be obtained through testing:

  • Verification of the equipment design and validation of the cause and effects
  • Validation of startup, operations and intervention procedures
  • Operating characteristics of the facility inclusive of hydrate formation, choke performance slugging issues, well productivity and flow characteristics at min through max flowrates
  • Unusual or unexpected conditions which may create startup issues
  • Initial competencies of the control room operators who will operate the facility via built in Exercise Manager tools and instructor provided operator competency assessments.

The future for operator training simulations is exciting. In addition to virtual servers, expect the rise of more enterprise simulators which bundle all of a company’s facility training simulators into a single OTS package. Expect magnitudes of higher fidelity simulations development that will likely change the use of training simulators into more of an engineering and asset development tool. Finally, the growth of remote login features allows trainer and trainee access to the OTS from any location where sufficient bandwidth and a remote plugin is available.

Source : https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/training-simulators-offshore-oil-gas-facilities-richard-raffield/


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